As early as the 15th century, the Republic of Venice vigorously attempted to curb the waves of plague pandemic by utilising, among other measures, preventive healthcare. While not a precursor to the right to health, the Venetian experience is of great historical significance.
What would constitute a first step in a human-rights based approach to the global allocation of pandemic vaccines? One possibility would be to encourage states parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to acknowledge their indirect obligations of participation and diligence.
The COVID-19 pandemic has hit urban poor women severely, including in Indonesia. The state as a duty-bearer with respect to human rights has struggled to assist them; more specifically, the state’s efforts in curbing the pandemic have not reached them.
Since the new wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in December 2019, many states around the world have taken drastic steps including lockdowns and quarantine to ensure minimal spread of the virus.